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Definitions


Definitions

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Car·bo·hy·drate
Pronunciation: -drt, -drt
Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, and celluloses) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods

Complex carbohydrate
A polysaccharide (as starch or cellulose) consisting of usually hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide units; also a food (as rice or pasta) composed primarily of such polysaccharides

Glycemic index
A measure of the rate at which an ingested food causes the level of glucose in the blood to rise ; also : a ranking of foods according to their glycemic index -- abbreviation GI

In·su·lin
Pronunciation: in(t)-s(-)ln
A protein hormone that is synthesized in the pancreas from proinsulin and secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues, by promoting its conversion into glycogen, fatty acids, and triglycerides, and by reducing the release of glucose from the liver, and that when produced in insufficient quantities results in diabetes mellitus.

Cal·o·rie
Variant(s): also cal·o·ry /kal-(-)r/
Inflected Form(s): plural -ries 1 a : the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to about 4.19 joules -- abbreviation cal; called also gram calorie, small calorie b : the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to 1000 gram calories or 3.968 Btu -- abbreviation Cal; called also kilocalorie, kilogram calorie, large calorie 2 a : a unit equivalent to the large calorie expressing heat-producing or energy-producing value in food when oxidized in the body b : an amount of food having an energy-producing value of one large calorie

Fat
1 : animal tissue consisting chiefly of cells distended with greasy or oily matter -- see BROWN FAT 2 a : oily or greasy matter making up the bulk of adipose tissue b : any of numerous compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are glycerides of fatty acids, are the chief constituents of plant and animal fat, are a major class of energy-rich food, and are soluble in organic solvents (as ether) but not in water c : a solid or semisolid fat as distinguished from an oil.

Obe·si·ty
Pronunciation: -b-st-
Inflected Form(s): plural -ties
A condition that is characterized by excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body and that in an adult is typically indicated by a body mass index of 30 or greater.

Vi·ta·min
Variant(s): also vi·ta·mine /vt--mn, British also vit-/
Any of various organic substances that are essential in minute quantities to the nutrition of most animals and some plants, act especially as coenzymes and precursors of coenzymes in the regulation of metabolic processes but do not provide energy or serve as building units, and are present in natural foodstuffs or are sometimes produced within the body

Sug·ar
Pronunciation: shg-r
1 : a sweet crystallizable substance that consists chiefly of sucrose, is colorless or white when pure and tending to brown when less refined, is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet and less extensively from sorghum, maples, and palms, and is important as a source of dietary carbohydrate and as a sweetener and preservative for other foods and for drugs and in the chemical industry as an intermediate 2 : any of various water-soluble compounds that vary widely in sweetness and comprise the oligosaccharides including sucrose.

Fruc·tose
Pronunciation: frk-ts, frük-, frk-, -tz
1 : an optically active sugar C6H12O6 that differs from glucose in having a ketonic rather than an aldehydic carbonyl group 2 : the very sweet soluble levorotatory D-form of fructose that occurs especially in fruit juices and honey -- called also levulose.

Diabetes mel·li·tus
Pronunciation: -mel-t-s
A variable disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and usually characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, by excessive urine production, by excessive amounts of sugar in the blood and urine, and by thirst, hunger, and loss of weight -- see TYPE 1 DIABETES, TYPE 2 DIABETES

Type 2 diabetes
Pronunciation: -tü-
Diabetes mellitus of a common form that develops especially in adults and most often in obese individuals and that is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body's inability to compensate with increased insulin production -- called also adult-onset diabetes, late-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Type 1 diabetes
Pronunciation: tp-wn-
Diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin secretion resulting from atrophy of the islets of Langerhans and causing hyperglycemia and a marked tendency toward ketoacidosis -- called also insulin-dependent diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Min·er·al
Pronunciation: min(-)-rl
A solid homogeneous crystalline chemical element or compound that results from the inorganic processes of nature.

At·kins diet
Pronunciation: at-knz-
A weight loss program that emphasizes a diet low in carbohydrates along with little restriction on protein, fat, or total caloric intake. Atkins, Robert Coleman (1930-2003), American cardiologist and nutritionist. In 1972 he published Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution, the first of seven best-selling diet books. His controversial system of weight loss was based upon an extremely low intake of carbohydrates that induces ketosis and forces the body to burn stored fat. He operated the Atkins Center for Complementary Medicine, and in 1999 established a foundation to support research on ways in which a low-carbohydrate diet can prevent or treat a variety of illnesses. Despite varying medical opinions on the efficacy and health effects of his method of weight loss, it gained popularity and prompted a demand for low-carbohydrate foods.

Low-sodium diet
A diet restricted to foods naturally low in sodium content and prepared without added salt that is used especially in the management of hypertension, heart failure, and kidney or liver dysfunction.

Irritable bowel syndrome
A chronic functional disorder of the colon that is of unknown etiology but is often considered to be of psychophysiological origin and that is characterized by diarrhea or constipation or diarrhea alternating with constipation, abdominal pain or discomfort, abdominal bloating, and passage of mucus in the stool -- abbreviation IBS; called also irritable colon, irritable colon syndrome, mucous colitis, spastic colon.

Hy·po·gly·ce·mic
Variant(s): or chiefly British hy·po·gly·cae·mic /-s-mik/
1: of, relating to, caused by, or affected with hypoglycemia 2: producing a decrease in the level of sugar in the blood

Ex·er·cise
Pronunciation: ek-sr-sz
1 : regular or repeated use of a faculty or bodily organ 2 : bodily exertion for the sake of developing and maintaining physical fitness.


 

Please refer to the "Understanding Carb" page for a clearer understanding of how foods impact your body.


 

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